An energy model for the analysis of motion in the primary visual cortex was introduced by Adelson & Bergen in 1985 (Spatiotemporal energy models for the perception of motion. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A/Vol. 2,No.2: 284-299).
Our approach is to show the correspondence between physiology and this kind of model. Using Adelson and Bergen's idea of spatiotemporal motion energy, we propose a model of the functional organisation of a unit such as a micro-column of V1. The model assumes classical receptive fields for simple and complex neurons and incorporates a strong hypothesis about the distribution of the neurons' preferences in these populations. We make assumptions about the phase distribution, the non-linear operator preferences and the window of visibility (the neurons' preferences for frequency).
In order to test our model, we use recent results and especially the optical imaging data of Basole & al.(2003) (Mapping multiple features in the population response of visual cortex. Nature Vol. 423,986-990), which show the influence of stimulus orientation, speed and length on the population response of V1 neurons, and highlight the existence of a single cortical map of spatiotemporal energy.